What is Juneteenth?

FAQs for PMG

PMG is all about manufacturing and this industry is all about making things. However, we try to remember the people doing the making, and all the things that are important to them. Our families, careers, and histories deserve recognition beyond what we do, when we’re “on the clock”. In that light, this month’s PMG FAQ will gladly answer a question we’re hearing more often every year.

What is Juneteenth?

We’re thrilled to see awareness of this holiday growing every year and we’re very happy to answer. Juneteenth is observed every year on June 19th, and has been since 1865. It began in Galveston, Texas, following the Civil War, as African American Emancipation Day. In the 156 years since, the celebration has grown and spread beyond the United States and, sometimes, beyond the date. Today, Juneteenth is a day, a week, and in some areas even a month that commemorates African American freedom and emphasizes education and achievement.


Juneteenth originated  when Major General Gordon Granger landed with his regiment and brought news to Texas of Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 Emancipation Proclamation and General Robert E. Lee’s April 1865 surrender. This announcement “officially” freed the enslaved population of Texas with Granger’s General Order Number 3.

“The people of Texas are informed that in accordance with a Proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired laborer.”

Why is it important today?

Juneteenth today, celebrates African American freedom and achievement, while encouraging continuous self-development and respect for all cultures. But, as historian Henry Gates Jr says, today the day is “not only an opportunity to celebrate, but to speak out.” As it grows in national, and even global, perspective, Juneteenth is becoming an increasingly symbolic event to not only recognize the achievements of the past, but to also advocate for societal improvements in the future. In essence, we’re all collectively remembering where we came from while recommitting to what we want our future to be. How can you not celebrate that?


How can I celebrate?

In the Workplace

Recognizing Juneteenth in the workplace doesn’t just support corporate diversity; it shows a true commitment to creating a diverse workforce and recognition of an increasingly diverse society. There are many ways this can be done, but bringing in a guest speaker is a great one. If you don’t know how to start this conversation with your employer, read our previous blog for some resources regarding racism, and how to talk about it, in the workplace.

In the Community

If your community doesn’t already have a Juneteenth committee, forming one is a great first step. However, if it does, participating in events is all you really need to do. Whether attending a block party, hosting guest speakers, or watching a parade; the aim of the day is to remember, celebrate, encourage, and support freedom, unity, and improvement among all of us. There isn’t a wrong way to participate in that!

In the Home

Plan a special meal and gather the family together to acknowledge Juneteenth. Decorate your table and/or door with a Juneteenth theme and discuss what the celebration of the day means. Emphasize the mandates of responsibility and striving to be the best you can be. Make specific pledges for the remainder of the year, ask for support in accomplishing your goals, and commit to supporting the goals of another.

Additional Resources

We hope this FAQ didn’t just answer your question but inspires you to more actively engage with Juneteenth this year. If you still have questions, there’s a lot more to learn about the holiday. You can always get other answers from us too. Just send your questions to our Writing Team and keep an eye out for future FAQ’s. We can’t wait to share our next answer with you!


About the Author

Josh E

Josh Erickson, ReTool Public Relations & Engagement Specialist

Macarons Vs. Macaroons

Macarons & Macaroons: What’s the Difference?

Potato, Potahto. Tomato, Tomahto…. Macaron, Macaroon? Don’t call the whole thing off! Let’s figure this out.

May 31, 2021 is National Macaron Day while Macaroons had their national day on March 20, 2021. Some will ask, “Why different days? Aren’t they the same thing?” and the answer to that is, “no, they are different”.

History & Origination

Before I get into those differences though, it’s important to note that both sweet treats ultimately started from the same place. Where that place is, is a question not yet answered.

Some say the origination goes back to the Arab empire in the years 600-700. During this time, it’s said that the cookies were made with honey and ground up nut flour (likely pistachio nuts) and their presence was expanding north as the empire expanded.

Some say these cookies originated in France. Others believe French monks in Renaissance Venice initially baked them in Italy. Depending upon who you ask though, some say the cookies originated when two Benedictine nuns baked these cookies to pay for their housing while seeking asylum during the French Revolution.

Others say, there were no changes to the original cookie until a prominent Italian woman married into French royalty and required that French chefs must make her favorite Italian cookies.

I’ll let you decide.


What we do know, is that the cookies were single and dome-shaped with a crumbly top. After some adaptations, the ingredients were fairly simple: sugar, almonds, and egg. Without flour, the egg provided the leavening agent.

However, over the centuries, the recipe changed (and ingredients) resulting in two different cookies and thus, Macaron vs. Macaroon. The main changes include:

  • Hand-ground almond flour mixed with powdered sugar rather than ground almond, likely occurring in the mid-1600s.
  • Replacing almond meal with ground coconut when newly planted coconut palms were all the craze in the late 1800s.

Now getting to the big question – what’s the difference between Macarons and Macaroons?

  1. Macaron is pronounced mac-a-rohn while Macaroon is pronounced mack-a-roon.
  2. Most agree that Macarons are French pastries and Macaroons are Italian pastries.
  3. Macarons are sandwich-like desserts with a ganache filling while Macaroons look like messes of coconut.

In fact, Macarons weren’t always sandwich-like cookies. French bakery and tearoom Ladurée is credited with making Macarons what they are today by serving two cookies together with a ganache in the middle, starting sometime in the 1930s.

With all that said, there is no need to travel to France or anywhere else for that matter to secure some of these delectable baked goods. Many bakeries offer both treats or you can make some of your own, with these highly-rated recipes:

Don’t forget. If you’re interested in more recipes or food tips & tricks, check out PMG’s Blog!

Happy Eating!


About the Author

Kim M

Kim Mooney, Technical Manager & Coach


How It’s Made – Sunscreen

There is an old saying that here in Minnesota, we have 11 seasons rather than the typical four. Those are:

  1. Winter
  2. Fool’s Spring
  3. Second Winter
  4. Spring of Deception
  5. Third Winter
  6. Mud Season
  7. Actual Spring
  8. Summer
  9. False Fall
  10. Second Summer
  11. Actual Fall

If you asked me, I’d say that right now, Minnesota has emerged from the Third Winter as well as Mud Season, is currently in Actual Spring, and getting closer to Summer with every day. With summer comes outdoor activities, mosquitos and sunshine so store shelves are full of bug spray and sunscreen which is how we got to wondering how sunscreen is made? We’ve got the answer for this month’s How It’s Made article!

How Is Sunscreen Made?

First and foremost, let’s outline just what sunscreen does. The sun emits three types of light: infrared, visible, and ultraviolet. Of the three, ultraviolet is the worst for humans. There are two types of ultraviolet rays (UVA and UVB). Depending upon which one, they will either penetrate the skin to cause damage to our cells and immune system, damage our eyes’ corneas and lenses, and/or cause skin cancer. Therefore, sunscreen does two things. It will either block these ultraviolet rays or  absorb the rays before they can penetrate our skin. To do this, sunscreen contains one or more of the following ingredients:

  1. Titanium Dioxide
  2. Avobenzone
  3. Zinc Oxide
  4. Octisalate
  5. Oxybenzone
  6. Homosalate

These ingredients are considered sunscreen actives which are combined with many other ingredients including liquids (purified water), functional ingredients (synthetics, emulsifiers, and preservatives), and skin-nourishing ingredients (Vitamin E). You can see the general percentages of each in this graph!

Sunscreen Ingredient Percentages

So, what happens next? What do we do with all these ingredients? Read on below to find out!

Four Steps to Making Sunscreen

Step 1: Water is purified through the use of reverse osmosis.

Step 2: Mix Purified water with all other ingredients.

  • The other ingredients will come in solid, powder, or flake form.
  • Ingredients are mixed in large vats or kettles. Mixing follows a recipe which outlines the exact measurements of each ingredient as well as the time, speed, and temperatures needed for mixing operations.

Step 3: Mixed ingredients are moved through stainless steel piping to stainless steel tanks and into a sterile room.

  • These tanks can have capacities of as much as 1,000 gallons.

Step 4: From these stainless steel tanks, the product then moves through more stainless steel piping to pressurized filling machines.

  • A conveyor brings the mottles into a sterile room and also to these machines.
  • The amount dispensed depends upon the bottle size and is controlled by machine programs.
  • Nozzles on the machinery extend and retract over and over into the bottles for filling operations.
  • Filled bottles are capped and packaged automatically by the equipment.
  • Once boxed, then palletized, and wrapped, it’s ready to ship!

Now, this summary of sunscreen manufacturing is simplified. However, buying sunscreen can be anything but simple. If you’re like me, and many others standing in sunscreen aisles, you don’t know what to buy! Check out this helpful article from the American Academy of Dermatology outlining answers for all the common Sunscreen FAQs including which sunscreens to use and when to use them. Additionally, here’s a great article explaining SPF -Sun Protection Factor!

And remember, regardless of how many real “seasons” your state may have, it’s important to wear sunscreen year-round!

Happy (and SAFE) Sunning!


About the Author

Kim M







Kim Mooney – Technical Manager & Coach

National Aviation Maintenance Technician Day

Charles Taylor built the engine that powered the Wright Brothers’ airplane, Kittyhawk, in 1903. May 24, his birthday, is recognized as National Aviation Maintenance Technician Day. This day allows the rest of us to celebrate those founders of flight who, like Mr. Taylor, made aviation possible. It also encourages us to show appreciation for the many other men and women who still keep air travel possible today.

History of the Day

National Aviation Maintenance Technician Day started as a resolution in the United States House of Representatives, sponsored by Congressman Bob Filner of California, in 2007. The resolution passed by voice vote the following year. Today, 45 different states officially observe this day of recognition. It might not get you out of work, but there are some things you can do to show your appreciation for the Americans involved with the maintenance that keeps the aviation industry flying high.

How to Show Appreciation

  • Encourage the next generation to follow you into the field. If you work in the aviation maintenance industry, simply talk to friends and family or a local classroom about your career.
  • Send a short note or tasty goodies to a person in your life who works in this field. Little gestures are easy ways to show big thanks.
  • Getting on a plane today? Print up a thank you in large font and hold it in your window. As your plane pushes back from your gate, the ramp agents will see it and spread the word.
  • Did you have a great flight? Did everything work well? Share recognition. Take the time to send a positive review to your airline or post about it on their social media platforms.

If you’re interested in ways you can show appreciation for other industries, read our blog about National HVAC Tech Day. If you’d like to know more about the ways you can show your appreciation for other kinds of work, AT WORK, read our blog on Love and Appreciation at Work. Whatever you do, work in a Thank You today, and the day will thank you too!


About the Author

Josh E

Josh Erickson, ReTool Public Relations & Engagement Specialist

Happy Mother’s Day!

Mother. Mom. Mama. Mommy. Matushka. Madre. Mutter.

To those of you with a mother:

Whether your relationship with your mother is solid or borderline depressing, Mother’s Day is the perfect opportunity to stop and reflect on the women who made you the person you are today. Their paths may not always reflect your own path, but that doesn’t mean they didn’t pave the road that made the most sense to them at any given time in their lives.

Those women may be your mom, your grandma, your aunt, your sister, your best friends’ mom, or the neighbor lady who always made sure you had food in your belly or shoes on your feet as you spent your summers roaming around the neighborhood. If you’re really lucky, it’s all of those ladies.

As you reflect, consider picking up the phone and letting them know what a difference they’ve made. I promise you won’t regret it.

To those of you that are a mother or dream of being a mother:

Whether you’ve been a mother for decades, are celebrating your first Mother’s Day with your little one, or have wished for years that your struggles to conceive were just an awful nightmare – I hope you realize what a difference you have made in the lives of those who look to you for wisdom, for a shoulder to cry on, for a goofy face to make them smile, for a hug to lean into, or simply for an excuse to hear they are loved.

To those of you who have had to say good-bye to your mother recently:

I can only imagine Mother’s Day after your mother is gone is a hard pill to swallow; a date on the calendar that you dread because you don’t know how you’ll feel but you know it’s not going to be good. I hope you take Mother’s Day as an opportunity to thank your mother still for all that she did for you, for raising you to be the person you are today, and for the blessing THAT bestowed on the people YOU love.


Happy Mother’s Day!


About the Author

Beth B.

Beth Bangtson, HR Manager

Stress Awareness Month

I write this article under pressure: I returned from vacation recently and still feel like I’m playing catch-up. Poor me, I know. I have several deadlines looming and even this article was due yesterday. Nothing like last minute, right?

In recognition of Stress Awareness Month, I’m taking a minute to breathe and asking you to do the same. I mean really bbbbrreeeeeeaaattthhhheeee – not just a quick breath, but one of those deep, shoulder relaxing, cheeks puffed out, mind cleansing kind of breaths.

Unfortunately, for almost all of us, stress is a normal part of the human existence. It’s not a laughing matter and, if left unchecked, can lead to much bigger issues. According to an done in 2017, the most common sources of stress among Americans were:

  • The future of our nation – 63% respondents mentioned
  • Money – 62%
  • Work – 61%
  • Political climate – 57%
  • Violence/crime – 51%

Now, look at the past year and imagine how those numbers have changed. You’re stressing out about it yourself, aren’t you?

As a parent, it’s surprising to me how early stress sneaks its way into our life’s. While researching for this article, I was grateful to find that the advice I recently gave my 10-year-old is one of the most common suggestions for overcoming stress: recognize that you don’t have control and let it go. I know that’s easier said than done in a lot of situations, but consistently reminding yourself could go a long way to improving your stress levels.

I hope as you deal with the stressors in your life, you have a trusted friend, family member, or counselor you are comfortable speaking with. If you’re a PMG employee, know that you have access to our Employee Assistance Program – free access to counseling for anything that might be causing you stress (see your manager for details).

For more expert advice on coping with stress, check out the CDC’s website: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/about/copingwith-stresstips.html 


About the Author

Beth B.

Beth Bangtson, HR Manager

National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week

National Drug and Alcohol Facts Week, aimed at teenagers, started March 22. The goal of this week was to debunk the myths we hear so often about drug and alcohol use.

According to research from the Centers for Disease Control, two-thirds of U.S. students have tried alcohol by 12th grade. National Drug and Alcohol Facts Week attempts to inform teens about the impact and risk of substance abuse.


Test your knowledge about drugs and drug use by taking the interactive  2021 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge quiz!

Quiz | NIDA for Teens (drugabuse.gov)

5 Signs of Teen Drug Abuse

Changes in Behavior

This can include anything from bad grades to lack of respect to poor eye contact. Take note of what is different in your teen and ask yourself if their behavior is unusual.

Psychological Changes

Drugs can have a heavy impact on your teen — from trouble concentrating to memory issues to seemingly random laughter.

Health Issues

Drug use often coincides with health issues. If your teen is experiencing appetite changes, shakiness, excessive headaches, or frequent illness — take note.

Personal Appearance

Look for changes in personal appearance (from bad hygiene to bloodshot eyes).  Another sign could be burn marks on fingers or lips.

Suspicious Behavior

You may notice drug paraphernalia, missing cash, or valuables. This could be a clear indication of drug use.


Want more safety-related topics? Check out our recent post on Poison Prevention!


About the Author

Brenda L

Brenda Lovitz, Risk & Safety Manager

Spring Break – Travel Outside the Box

The first day of spring was Sunday March 20th this year and with spring comes many things – birds chirping, snow melting, and spring break! As you likely know, spring break is the time when many individuals travel.

To help you out with your travels this year (and give you an opportunity to think and travel outside the box), we’ve created lists of places you should check out that are based on American manufacturing and industry. If you think the idea of traveling based on American revolution seems odd, think again. In this article about Industrial Tourism, you’ll find it’s not as uncommon as you may think!

As for our list, it includes places that are currently open during the pandemic and places that provide online options for anyone staying in.

General US Regions

The Rust Belt

This area is generally known as the area surrounding the great lakes like PA, MI, IN, WV, and OH. Natural resources in these areas such as coal and iron as well as rivers and trains for transportation greatly changed manufacturing in the early years. It’s a popular area for the production of automotive vehicles and parts, primary metal manufacturing, fabricated metals, food, chemical and paper.


This state is well known for its engineering and manufacturing of electronics and computers as well as production of chemical and petroleum products.


Texas is similar to California in that it’s a major supplier of chemicals, petroleum products, and computers. It’s also a major supplier of food and building supplies (brick & cement).

New England

This region led the way in the earlier industrial revolutions as immigrants traveled to America. These states (including MA, CT, and NH) are now powerhouses in electronic, appliance, and aerospace manufacturing.

Museums and Exhibits

American Precision Museum – Windsor, VT

This is “the dynamic store of machines and people which form the foundation and future of the manufacturing industry in America.”

Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation – Dearborn, MI

This museum is just one of many experiences on a 250-acre campus. You can also step into Greenfield Village to experience things like riding in a Model T, take a tour at the Ford Rouge Factory, and watch educational movies on a state-of-the-art (and very large) 4K digital projection screen.

Louisville Slugger Museum & Factory – Louisville, KY

Here you can learn about the makings of Louisville Slugger bats “from the forest to the field”.

Kregel Windmill Factory Museum – Nebraska City, NE

This is the original Kregel factory which produced windmills for 112 years straight and now houses all the artifacts and historical information for a critical technology long ago.

Baltimore Museum of Industry – Baltimore, MD

This museum spans across five acres of land to give you experiences and knowledge about Maryland’s industrial past and the ways it shaped their state and region.

Museum of History & Industry – Seattle, WA

This museum focuses on the ways in which the Puget Sound area has shaped inventive or industrial processes worldwide.

The Kazoo Factory – Beaufort, SC

After taking the fully-guided tour here, you’ll also have the opportunity to make your own Kazoo!

Minnesota Transportation Museum – St. Paul, MN

Don’t spend all of your time learning on vacation. At this museum, not only will you learn the ways trains changed American industry, but you can also ride in a historical train!

Heritage Center of Dayton Manufacturing & Entrepreneurship – Dayton, OH

On this 65 acre campus, you can learn all about Dayton’s mark on innovation and industrialization from 1840 to current day.

Lowell National Historical Park – Lowell, MA

Water-powered textile mills transformed America’s early industrial revolutions. At this national park, you will learn the stories of the people (many immigrant and many female) who worked in the mills.

Goodenough Silver Mine Underground Tour – Tombstone, AZ

Tombstone, Arizona had an incredibly large mining industry and this mine was the largest producer of silver.

Statues and Commemorative Memorials

The Hat Maker Statue – Danbury, CT

Located in the Hat City of the World!

Mechanics Monument – San Francisco, CA

This statue was erected for the workers at Union Iron Works, the first foundry built in California.

Rosie the Riveter Memorial – Richmond, CA

During World War II, Richmond, California shipyards produced more ships than any other shipyard. This park tells the story of WWII from the home front perspective.

Thomas Talbot Statue – Atlanta, GA

The founder and first president of the International Association of Machinists (IAM).

Brown Building – Manhattan, NY

This building is considered a National Historic Landmark and showcases a plaque to memorialize those lost in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. This fire changed the lives of many textile workers (and others) in the US.

Online Exhibitions, Videos, and Virtual Tours

National Museum of American History

This Smithsonian museum is currently closed but offers many online and virtual opportunities to learn about America’s industrial past including this one about Industrial Drawings and this one on Solar Power.

Tuesday Tech Talks

These are interesting (and short enough) YouTube videos from the Charles River Museum of Industry and Innovation in Waltham, Massachusetts.

Amazon Fulfillment Center Tour

In this virtual tour, you’ll get to see an Amazon fulfillment center with your own eyes.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

In this virtual tour, you’ll get 3D access to Mission Control, Visitor Lobby Center and the Spacecraft Assembly Facility of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab.

Kregel Windmill Factory Museum

This is the original Kregel factory which produced windmills for 112 years straight, now housing all the artifacts and historical information for a critical technology long ago.


Want more manufacturing history? Check out our post on Inventors & Leaders – Black History Month.


Happy Travels!


About the Author

Kim M

Kim Mooney, Technical Manager & Coach

Employee Appreciation Day

We Appreciate YOU!

For the past 25 years, YOU have been celebrated on the first Friday in March, each year, but did you even realize this?

Employee Appreciation Day is Friday, March 5th this year and after the year we’ve all had, we wanted to make sure you were aware how much we appreciate you!

As leaders at PMG, we know how hard it is to find really great, high caliber employees who have the KSA’s (Knowledge, Skills, & Abilities) our clients need for us to help them get their incredibly important work done.

We hope you hear it often enough, but in case you don’t, please know that each and every day of the year, we are SO THANKFUL FOR WHO YOU ARE and what you bring to the work site every single day. We are thankful for the little glimpses you share with us of who you are and what you get out of being a PMG employee. YOU ARE PMG!



Inventors & Leaders – Black History Month

Inspirational Inventors & Leaders

Celebrating Americans Who’ve Greatly Impacted the Manufacturing Sector

There are many designs, inventions, and products that have forever changed, altered, and affected manufacturing over the years. Behind those inventions and products are hard-working, intelligent, and crafty makers. In addition to the maker, there are the executive leaders keeping the product rolling. With February being Black History Month, we wanted to showcase the talented and inspirational black inventors and leaders who’ve changed manufacturing with their work.

Charles Richard Patterson (1833 – 1910)

Charles was the founder of the first (and only) African American owned & operated automobile company, C.R. Patterson & Sons, which started as a carriage-making company.

Elijah J. McCoy (1844 – 1929)    

Elijah developed an automatic lubricator for oiling the steam engine parts of trains allowing trains to run for longer without having to stop. Other lubricators were developed in imitation but were never as good as Elijah McCoy’s. As a result, railway engineers requested “The Real McCoy” thus bringing to life the popular expression, which means “the real thing”!

Lewis Howard Latimer (1848 – 1928)

Lewis invented the carbon filament for incandescent lightbulbs, (1881) changing the course of electricity forever! He wrote the first book on electric lighting and also managed and supervised all public electric light installation in New York City, Philadelphia, Montreal, and London. Additionally, Lewis assisted in drafting the patent for Alexander Graham Bell’s invention: the telephone.  Other inventions of his include the first railroad car water closet (better known as toilet) in 1874 as well as the forerunner of air conditioners in 1886.

Jan Ernst Matzeliger (1852 – 1889)

Jan invented a shoe lasting machine which attached the shoe sole to its upper (called ‘lasting’) removing the requirement to do this by hand. This machine produced more than 10 times the amount shoemakers could produce by hand. Additionally, Jan consistently improved his invention until it could produce 700 pairs of shoes in one day.

George Washington Carver (1864 – 1943)

George developed numerous techniques to improve soils depleted by repeated plantings of cotton. He also founded an industrial research laboratory in which he developed and promoted products and applications to popularize alternative crops used in his crop rotation method. In doing so, he learned of a need to educate farmers at their homes and thus designed and created a mobile classroom!

Madame C.J. Walker (1867 – 1919)

After experiencing hair loss which no product on the market could correct, Madame C.J. invented a line of African American hair products in addition to the Madame C.J. Walker Laboratories for the manufacturing of these and other products/cosmetics. In addition to this, her company trained women as sales beauticians. In doing so, Madame C.J became one of the first self-made, American millionaire women!

Charles W. “C.W.” Chapelle (1872 – 1941)

Charles was the first head electrician of US Steel, the founder of African Union Company Inc. and an airplane enthusiast. He’s well known for designing an award-wining, long-distance airplane, being the only African American to display a plane at the 1911 First Industrial Airplane Show. In addition, Charles was the Vice President of the first African American airplane company!

Frederick McKinley Jones (1893 – 1961)

One of the very fun facts about Frederick is that he designed and built a race car that not only beat other automobiles in races, but also once beat an airplane! In addition to this feat, he designed a series of devices that allowed silent movie projectors to use talking movie stock. However, he’s best known for inventing the first automatic refrigeration system for long-haul trucks and railroad cars (mobile refrigeration units). These mobile refrigeration units led to the formation of Thermo-King Corp. and revolutionized the availability of fresh produce at anytime, anywhere.

Otis Frank Boykin (1920 – 1982)

Otis invented electrical resistor technology which is still, to this day, used in TVs, radios, computers, pacemakers, and guided missiles! Not only did this technology change electronics physically, but it also significantly reduced the cost of making the devices. In addition, Otis created the electrical capacitator, a burglar-proof cash register, and a chemical air filter.

Craig Arnold (1951 – )

Craig is currently the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Eaton Corporation. He previously held the title of Corporate Vice President and President for GE Lighting Services Ltd. and GE Plastics. He is a strong advocate of diversity, equality, and innovation in manufacturing, corporations, and executive leadership roles.

Marian Rogers Croak (1955 – )

Marian is the developer of Voice over Internet Protocol/IP (VoIP) – a method and group of technologies used to communicate through voice, fax, text, etc. over the Internet. This changed the way humans communicate forever! She is currently the Vice President for Engineering at Google.

Mark E. Dean (1957 – )

Mark has made many contributions over the year in the area of Computer Technology. He is a major contributor to the invention of the color PC monitor and the gigahertz chip. In fact, he holds three of the original nine IBM company patents. Additionally, Mark co-invented the Industry Standard Architecture System Bus which allows devices such as printers and monitors to be directly plugged into computers.

Alicia Boler Davis (1972 – )

Alicia is the first black woman to work as a Plant Manager for General Motors (GM). Over the years, she did many things at GM, including working as Executive Vice President of Global Manufacturing! In her 25 years at GM, she found herself not only managing factories, but also negotiating with unions, overseeing new car model development, and working through recalls. She is currently with Amazon as the first black woman in a Senior Vice President role.

Check out the following link to learn more about Black History Month, written by Daryl Michael Scott, a Professor of History at Howard University and the Vice President of Program at the Association for the Study of African American Life and History.

Want more history? Read our post on Women’s History Month!


About the Author

Picture of Kim Mooney

Kim Mooney, Technical Manager & Coach